Water is present all over the place in mining and its management varies based on its role in the mining processes. In a latest in-depth article by pumps main KSB, the company outlines how this in flip influences the number of applied sciences used in pumping water. “Alongside the safe provide and restoration of course of water is the challenge of eradicating ground water. Process water and groundwater include abrasive and corrosive elements in various portions which have an opposed have an effect on on pump efficiency and life. Working situations, remote areas, varying temperature ranges and the lack of electrical power are also highly influential components.”
The copper mines in Chile and the iron ore mines in Western Australia may be many thousands of miles apart, however these mining operations nonetheless require dewatering and the protected disposal of doubtless contaminated water. “The similar can be mentioned of the coal mines of Mozambique and the silver mines of Mexico. What all of them have in frequent is a requirement for efficient and effective water and slurry pumps. Well-matched options help to maximize the longevity and efficiency of the system and in addition optimise cost-performance ratios, all attributes fulfilled by KSB’s Hard Rock Mining Division.”
The changing face of mining
The seek for more rare and treasured minerals and metals has opened up mining in international locations and locations where previously the trade was small scale or non-existent. Consequently, mining firms and tools manufacturers have had to develop new strategies and products. And with the most important mining corporations having operations in many world locations, becoming a most well-liked gear provider is important. “The dewatering market is slowly shifting from a pure CAPEX point of view to an increasingly OPEX perspective,” reviews Brett Lewis, Mining Manager at KSB Australia. “This is very true for the massive mines that notice that poorly designed equipment that often fails, causes a major improve in alternative and servicing cost. Some mining companies are now committing to a carbon neutral target within the next 20 to 30 years, so are focussing on excessive effectivity equipment. They wish to phase out diesel reliance by connecting most bores to their local electrical grid.”
KSB says it is conscious that mining firms are recording pump performance and are accumulating knowledge to compare manufacturers and better rank their qualities or deficiencies. “This is nice information for KSB as the company is committed to delivering excessive reliability and effectivity pumps, so helping to reduce the carbon footprint of mining dewatering operations.
Is there a ‘one-fits-all’ pump solution?
KSB says the answer to it is a resounding ‘no’, but “by sharing experiences between places of work and likewise incessantly working with the same international mining firms, KSB has been capable of develop applicable options. KSB’s involvement within the iron ore industries in Brazil and Australia demonstrate two completely different approaches to dewatering, both employing vertical multi-stage pumps.”
In Brazil’s Minas Gerais State open pit iron ore mines excessive floor water, monsoons and underground lakes are problems. To keep continuous production water has to be pumped to a dewatering lake which has a dynamic water level that have to be raised two or 3 times a year. เกจวัดแรงดันน้ำ10บาร์ is a floating station fitted with KSB vertical turbine B pumps positioned over a pontoon (Fig.1). The pontoon rises and falls with modifications within the water level so there isn’t any want for the pumps to be repositioned. This results in cost-savings to the client. After 20 successful years it has become the standard for this sort of gear in South America.
“The floating station supporting the pumps over the pontoon delivers the move price requested by the customer,” explains Jardel Ribeiro, Sales Manager, KSB Brazil. “Sometimes the pumps, high power motors and associated gear results in the scale of the floating station being increased. Stabilizing gear that weighs greater than 200 t requires a lot of planning, in addition to the problem of building a system in such a distant area.”
Boreholes in Australia
In the Pilbara Region of Western Australia iron ore is mined in several locations around the Chichester hub zone, an area between 5 and 9 km wide and eighty km long. The mineral deposit sits between ninety m and 117 m below the floor. With the groundwater and water table often replenished in wet seasons and cyclones including to the inundation, more than 75% of the iron ore is under the water desk. If an excessive amount of water mixes with iron ore, it turns into low grade and unsuitable for export, which leads to massive income losses. Also, surface dewatering processes are extraordinarily costly if the water could be very high.
The accepted dewatering course of within the area is to pump the water out through boreholes. However, this is not with out its challenges. High water temperatures and high salinity end in excessive corrosion, whilst iron bacteria can develop on motors which prevent efficient motor cooling. The presence of fuel is a continuing menace in some areas as this causes fuel lock on the impellers leading to heavy vibrations, which locations a fantastic pressure on the motor, lack of flow price and motor failure.
This signifies that commonplace off-the-shelf merchandise aren’t at all times suitable and the incidence of failures is excessive. Typically, most bore pumps fail within 12 months, and sometimes only a few weeks. At its Hope Valley facility in Western Australia, KSB supplies mine operators with its UPA multistage borehole pump, customised to withstand website situations. Although a dearer product than its opponents, the UPA has been proven to deliver a significantly longer working life and reduced costs of ownership. KSB’s proprietary technology that inhibits the expansion of iron bacteria makes the UPA a winner.
Trailer mounted units
In Africa the surroundings and minerals being mined require innovative approaches to dewatering. In the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, home to several open reduce and underground copper mines wet seasons wreak flooding havoc. Here, KSB is delivering a quantity of different pumping solutions involving both UPA Z borehole pumps and surface-mounted Omega pumps. “To prevent mining operations from being shut down, a fast localised response is required,” says Rob Bond, Area Manager Mining-Sub-Saharan Africa. “Our solution has been to produce Omega pumps mounted on tough terrain trailers. We supply a whole package made up of the pump, engine/motor, couplings, gearbox, hydraulic drives and auxiliary equipment together with vacuum pump, management panels, monitors etc that delivers excessive head pumping.”
A comparable resolution can also be supplied for the open solid Moatize coal mine in Mozambique the place the water levels should remain low for steady manufacturing reliability. Whilst borehole pumps provide good reliability on a constant foundation, when the wet season begins, more assets are in demand KSB SA offers skid-mounted Omega models. To date, KSB SA has equipped 152 models and all are working reliably.
In Mexico’s Zacatecas silver mines underground water is a constant problem. According to Roberto Valenzuela, Sales Manager Mining KSB Mexico, the water incorporates solid particles so the high stress encapsulated UPA borehole pumps ought to be wear-resistant for long run effectivity. Because the dewatering pumps work at a excessive velocity, the impellers and the wear ring can suffer from untimely wear. Using Multitec horizontal multistage pumps with KSB’s C6 standard chrome coating, put on is significantly minimised. “We have had pumps working in this mine for over two years with out the impellers being modified,” says Roberto Valenzuela. “It is a solution that no competitor provides, and adds value for the shopper via decreased upkeep, spare parts and higher mining uptime.”
In Chile’s Atacama Desert copper and gold is mined at altitudes ranging between 2,000 m and four,500 m. Remote sites, mine depths and the unavailability of electrical energy wanted to drive excessive capacity pumps complicate dewatering. High volumes of water contaminated by minerals can delay drilling and blasting and lead to environmental pollution. KSB Chile has met these challenges by supplying encapsulated borehole pumps and cantilevered Etanorm pumps, driven by diesel motors.
“Our clients require high-pressure pumps in a modular configuration that can be moved with the enlargement of the open pit,” feedback Patricio Araya, Mining Head KSB Chile. “The resolution is to make use of horizontally positioned borehole pumps with a special configuration for sand filters encased in a strain shroud. This offers the client flexibility and versatility because the gear is compact, develops excessive pressures and is simple to maneuver across the web site.
To accommodate rising flows and discharge stress pumps are configured in collection and in parallel specifically for the client’s necessities. Being coupled to diesel engines permits continuous, autonomous operation in places with out electricity for between 12 and 24 hours with out refuelling. Vertical Etanorm pumps and cantilever-type UPA pumps installed on a raft enabling them to handle the buildup of water contained in the mine, eliminating components corresponding to unfavorable suction head at excessive altitudes. KSB gear for mine drainage is equipped in standard versions, with variations for rafts or nicely pumps installed in strain jackets. Having viable options for dewatering adds worth to the purchasers operations and can be essential as a outcome of each year minerals are discovered at deeper ranges.
Innovation in Indonesia
Indonesia is among the world’s largest exporters of thermal coal, and in addition a major participant in copper, gold, tin, bauxite, and nickel. Here KSB pumps are acknowledged for his or her excellent capability to perform in severe open pit mine websites. Its development of dewatering and dredge pump units (DnD), as a solution for mining functions, particularly for open-pit mine websites is one instance of KSB’ dedication to steady product improvement and improvement. To date, more than 260 DnD pumps with GWI® LCC and LSA pumps have been installed in mines throughout Indonesia and South East Asia. In 2013, KSB Indonesia launched a brand new model, the DnD Cruiser with enhancements requested by prospects.
KSB builds the complete diesel pushed pump unit on a barge, complete with gasoline tank, vacuum pump, control panel and so forth, and ships them on trailers for simple commissioning at website. Because monsoon rains are seasonal dewatering can additionally be a seasonal exercise and this means pumps can stand idle for several months through the dry intervals. Recognising this situation, KSB has introduced a rental programme, whereby the pumps are supplied fully-kitted out in accordance with the customer’s necessities. By not having to buy the pump units, clients are relieved of the prices of possession and know that after they require models they come prepared for operation.
KSB’s mine dewatering methods allow the safe and environment friendly reducing of groundwater in open pit dewatering, underground drainage and borehole drainage functions. Regardless of a mine’s location, the type of mining operation being carried out, the geological and the aggressive and corrosive nature of the water, KSB has fluid dealing with technologies that can fit all eventualities. This scenario has come about through the cross-fertilisation of concepts, applied sciences and experiences gained over many decades by our corporations all over the world, supported by in depth funding in research and development. Wherever a pumping answer is required, we can convey a co-ordinated response to the desk.